The Architecture of Open Source Applications (Volume 1)
Selenium WebDriver

Simon Stewart

Selenium is a browser automation tool, commonly used for writing end-to-end tests of web applications. A browser automation tool does exactly what you would expect: automate the control of a browser so that repetitive tasks can be automated. It sounds like a simple problem to solve, but as we will see, a lot has to happen behind the scenes to make it work.

Before describing the architecture of Selenium it helps to understand how the various related pieces of the project fit together. At a very high level, Selenium is a suite of three tools. The first of these tools, Selenium IDE, is an extension for Firefox that allows users to record and playback tests. The record/playback paradigm can be limiting and isn't suitable for many users, so the second tool in the suite, Selenium WebDriver, provides APIs in a variety of languages to allow for more control and the application of standard software development practices. The final tool, Selenium Grid, makes it possible to use the Selenium APIs to control browser instances distributed over a grid of machines, allowing more tests to run in parallel. Within the project, they are referred to as "IDE", "WebDriver" and "Grid". This chapter explores the architecture of Selenium WebDriver.

This chapter was written during the betas of Selenium 2.0 in late 2010. If you're reading the book after then, then things will have moved forward, and you'll be able to see how the architectural choices described here have unfolded. If you're reading before that date: Congratulations! You have a time machine. Can I have some winning lottery numbers?

16.1. History

Jason Huggins started the Selenium project in 2004 while working at ThoughtWorks on their in-house Time and Expenses (T&E) system, which made extensive use of Javascript. Although Internet Explorer was the dominant browser at the time, ThoughtWorks used a number of alternative browsers (in particular Mozilla variants) and would file bug reports when the T&E app wouldn't work on their browser of choice. Open Source testing tools at the time were either focused on a single browser (typically IE) or were simulations of a browser (like HttpUnit). The cost of a license for a commercial tool would have exhausted the limited budget for a small in-house project, so they weren't even considered as viable testing choices.

Where automation is difficult, it's common to rely on manual testing. This approach doesn't scale when the team is very small or when releases are extremely frequent. It's also a waste of humanity to ask people to step through a script that could be automated. More prosaically, people are slower and more error prone than a machine for dull repetitive tasks. Manual testing wasn't an option.

Fortunately, all the browsers being tested supported Javascript. It made sense to Jason and the team he was working with to write a testing tool in that language which could be used to verify the behavior of the application. Inspired by work being done on FIT1, a table-based syntax was placed over the raw Javascript and this allowed tests to be written by people with limited programming experience using a keyword-driven approach in HTML files. This tool, originally called "Selenium" but later referred to as "Selenium Core", was released under the Apache 2 license in 2004.

The table format of Selenium is structured similarly to the ActionFixture from FIT. Each row of the table is split into three columns. The first column gives the name of the command to execute, the second column typically contains an element identifier and the third column contains an optional value. For example, this is how to type the string "Selenium WebDriver" into an element identified with the name "q":

type       name=q       Selenium WebDriver

Because Selenium was written in pure Javascript, its initial design required developers to host Core and their tests on the same server as the application under test (AUT) in order to avoid falling foul of the browser's security policies and the Javascript sandbox. This was not always practical or possible. Worse, although a developer's IDE gives them the ability to swiftly manipulate code and navigate a large codebase, there is no such tool for HTML. It rapidly became clear that maintaining even a medium-sized suite of tests was an unwieldy and painful proposition.2

To resolve this and other issues, an HTTP proxy was written so that every HTTP request could be intercepted by Selenium. Using this proxy made it possible to side-step many of the constraints of the "same host origin" policy, where a browser won't allow Javascript to make calls to anything other than the server from which the current page has been served, allowing the first weakness to be mitigated. The design opened up the possibility of writing Selenium bindings in multiple languages: they just needed to be able to send HTTP requests to a particular URL. The wire format was closely modeled on the table-based syntax of Selenium Core and it, along with the table-based syntax, became known as "Selenese". Because the language bindings were controlling the browser at a distance, the tool was called "Selenium Remote Control", or "Selenium RC".

While Selenium was being developed, another browser automation framework was brewing at ThoughtWorks: WebDriver. The initial code for this was released early in 2007. WebDriver was derived from work on projects which wanted to isolate their end-to-end tests from the underlying test tool. Typically, the way that this isolation is done is via the Adapter pattern. WebDriver grew out of insight developed by applying this approach consistently over numerous projects, and initially was a wrapper around HtmlUnit. Internet Explorer and Firefox support followed rapidly after release.

When WebDriver was released there were significant differences between it and Selenium RC, though they sat in the same software niche of an API for browser automation. The most obvious difference to a user was that Selenium RC had a dictionary-based API, with all methods exposed on a single class, whereas WebDriver had a more object-oriented API. In addition, WebDriver only supported Java, whereas Selenium RC offered support for a wide-range of languages. There were also strong technical differences: Selenium Core (on which RC was based) was essentially a Javascript application, running inside the browser's security sandbox. WebDriver attempted to bind natively to the browser, side-stepping the browser's security model at the cost of significantly increased development effort for the framework itself.

In August, 2009, it was announced that the two projects would merge, and Selenium WebDriver is the result of those merged projects. As I write this, WebDriver supports language bindings for Java, C#, Python and Ruby. It offers support for Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, and the Android and iPhone browsers. There are sister projects, not kept in the same source code repository but working closely with the main project, that provide Perl bindings, an implementation for the BlackBerry browser, and for "headless" WebKit—useful for those times where tests need to run on a continuous integration server without a proper display. The original Selenium RC mechanism is still maintained and allows WebDriver to provide support for browsers that would otherwise be unsupported.

16.2. A Digression About Jargon

Unfortunately, the Selenium project uses a lot of jargon. To recap what we've already come across:

The astute reader will have noticed that "Selenium" is used in a fairly general sense. Fortunately, context normally makes it clear which particular Selenium people are referring to.

Finally, there's one more phrase which I'll be using, and there's no graceful way of introducing it: "driver" is the name given to a particular implementation of the WebDriver API. For example, there is a Firefox driver, and an Internet Explorer driver.

16.3. Architectural Themes

Before we start looking at the individual pieces to understand how they're wired together, it's useful to understand the the overarching themes of the architecture and development of the project. Succinctly put, these are:

16.3.1. Keep the Costs Down

Supporting X browsers on Y platforms is inherently an expensive proposition, both in terms of initial development and maintenance. If we can find some way to keep the quality of the product high without violating too many of the other principles, then that's the route we favor. This is most clearly seen in our adoption of Javascript where possible, as you'll read about shortly.

16.3.2. Emulate the User

WebDriver is designed to accurately simulate the way that a user will interact with a web application. A common approach for simulating user input is to make use of Javascript to synthesize and fire the series of events that an app would see if a real user were to perform the same interaction. This "synthesized events" approach is fraught with difficulties as each browser, and sometimes different versions of the same browser, fire slightly different events with slightly different values. To complicate matters, most browsers won't allow a user to interact in this way with form elements such as file input elements for security reasons.

Where possible WebDriver uses the alternative approach of firing events at the OS level. As these "native events" aren't generated by the browser this approach circumvents the security restrictions placed on synthesized events and, because they are OS specific, once they are working for one browser on a particular platform reusing the code in another browser is relatively easy. Sadly, this approach is only possible where WebDriver can bind closely with the browser and where the development team have determined how best to send native events without requiring the browser window to be focused (as Selenium tests take a long time to run, and it's useful to be able to use the machine for other tasks as they run). At the time of writing, this means that native events can be used on Linux and Windows, but not Mac OS X.

No matter how WebDriver is emulating user input, we try hard to mimic user behavior as closely as possible. This in contrast to RC, which provided APIs that operated at a level far lower than that which a user works at.

16.3.3. Prove the Drivers Work

It may be an idealistic, "motherhood and apple pie" thing, but I believe there's no point in writing code if it doesn't work. The way we prove the drivers work on the Selenium project is to have an extensive set of automated test cases. These are typically "integration tests", requiring the code to be compiled and making use of a browser interacting with a web server, but where possible we write "unit tests", which, unlike an integration test can be run without a full recompilation. At the time of writing, there are about 500 integration tests and about 250 unit tests that could be run across each and every browser. We add more as we fix issues and write new code, and our focus is shifting to writing more unit tests.

Not every test is run against every browser. Some test specific capabilities that some browsers don't support, or which are handled in different ways on different browsers. Examples would include the tests for new HTML5 features which aren't supported on all browsers. Despite this, each of the major desktop browsers have a significant subset of tests run against them. Understandably, finding a way to run 500+ tests per browser on multiple platforms is a significant challenge, and it's one that the project continues to wrestle with.

16.3.4. You Shouldn't Need to Understand How Everything Works

Very few developers are proficient and comfortable in every language and technology we use. Consequently, our architecture needs to allow developers to focus their talents where they can do the most good, without needing them to work on pieces of the codebase where they are uncomfortable.

16.3.5. Lower the Bus Factor

There's a (not entirely serious) concept in software development called the "bus factor". It refers to the number of key developers who would need to meet some grisly end—presumably by being hit by a bus—to leave the project in a state where it couldn't continue. Something as complex as browser automation could be especially prone to this, so a lot of our architectural decisions are made to raise this number as high as possible.

16.3.6. Have Sympathy for a Javascript Implementation

WebDriver falls back to using pure Javascript to drive the browser if there is no other way of controlling it. This means that any API we add should be "sympathetic" to a Javascript implementation. As a concrete example, HTML5 introduces LocalStorage, an API for storing structured data on the client-side. This is typically implemented in the browser using SQLite. A natural implementation would have been to provide a database connection to the underlying data store, using something like JDBC. Eventually, we settled on an API that closely models the underlying Javascript implementation because something that modeled typical database access APIs wasn't sympathetic to a Javascript implementation.

16.3.7. Every Call Is an RPC Call

WebDriver controls browsers that are running in other processes. Although it's easy to overlook it, this means that every call that is made through its API is an RPC call and therefore the performance of the framework is at the mercy of network latency. In normal operation, this may not be terribly noticeable—most OSes optimize routing to localhost—but as the network latency between the browser and the test code increases, what may have seemed efficient becomes less so to both API designers and users of that API.

This introduces some tension into the design of APIs. A larger API, with coarser functions would help reduce latency by collapsing multiple calls, but this must be balanced by keeping the API expressive and easy to use. For example, there are several checks that need to be made to determine whether an element is visible to an end-user. Not only do we need to take into account various CSS properties, which may need to be inferred by looking at parent elements, but we should probably also check the dimensions of the element. A minimalist API would require each of these checks to be made individually. WebDriver collapses all of them into a single isDisplayed method.

16.3.8. Final Thought: This Is Open Source

Although it's not strictly an architectural point, Selenium is an Open Source project. The theme that ties all the above points together is that we'd like to make it as easy as possible for a new developer to contribute. By keeping the depth of knowledge required as shallow as possible, using as few languages as necessary and by relying on automated tests to verify that nothing has broken, we hopefully enable this ease of contribution.

Originally the project was split into a series of modules, with each module representing a particular browser with additional modules for common code and for support and utility code. Source trees for each binding were stored under these modules. This approach made a lot of sense for languages such as Java and C#, but was painful to work with for Rubyists and Pythonistas. This translated almost directly into relative contributor numbers, with only a handful of people able and interested to work on the Python and Ruby bindings. To address this, in October and November of 2010 the source code was reorganized with the Ruby and Python code stored under a single top-level directory per language. This more closely matched the expectations of Open Source developers in those languages, and the effect on contributions from the community was noticeable almost immediately.

16.4. Coping with Complexity

Software is a lumpy construct. The lumps are complexity, and as designers of an API we have a choice as where to push that complexity. At one extreme we could spread the complexity as evenly as possible, meaning that every consumer of the API needs to be party to it. The other extreme suggests taking as much of the complexity as possible and isolating it in a single place. That single place would be a place of darkness and terror for many if they have to venture there, but the trade-off is that users of the API, who need not delve into the implementation, have that cost of complexity paid up-front for them.

The WebDriver developers lean more towards finding and isolating the complexity in a few places rather than spreading it out. One reason for this is our users. They're exceptionally good at finding problems and issues, as a glance at our bug list shows, but because many of them are not developers a complex API isn't going to work well. We sought to provide an API that guides people in the right direction. As an example, consider the following methods from the original Selenium API, each of which can be used to set the value of an input element:

Here's the equivalent in the WebDriver API:

As discussed earlier, this highlights one of the major philosophical differences between RC and WebDriver in that WebDriver is striving to emulate the user, whereas RC offers APIs that deal at a lower level that a user would find hard or impossible to reach. The distinction between typeKeys and typeKeysNative is that the former always uses synthetic events, whereas the latter attempts to use the AWT Robot to type the keys. Disappointingly, the AWT Robot sends the key presses to whichever window has focus, which may not necessarily be the browser. WebDriver's native events, by contrast, are sent directly to the window handle, avoiding the requirement that the browser window have focus.

16.4.1. The WebDriver Design

The team refers to WebDriver's API as being "object-based". The interfaces are clearly defined and try to adhere to having only a single role or responsibility, but rather than modeling every single possible HTML tag as its own class we only have a single WebElement interface. By following this approach developers who are using an IDE which supports auto-completion can be led towards the next step to take. The result is that coding sessions may look like this (in Java):

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();
driver.<user hits space>

At this point, a relatively short list of 13 methods to pick from appears. The user selects one:

driver.findElement(<user hits space>)

Most IDEs will now drop a hint about the type of the argument expected, in this case a "By". There are a number of preconfigured factory methods for "By" objects declared as static methods on the By itself. Our user will quickly end up with a line of code that looks like:


Role-based Interfaces

Think of a simplified Shop class. Every day, it needs to be restocked, and it collaborates with a Stockist to deliver this new stock. Every month, it needs to pay staff and taxes. For the sake of argument, let's assume that it does this using an Accountant. One way of modeling this looks like:

public interface Shop {
    void addStock(StockItem item, int quantity);
    Money getSalesTotal(Date startDate, Date endDate);

We have two choices about where to draw the boundaries when defining the interface between the Shop, the Accountant and the Stockist. We could draw a theoretical line as shown in Figure 16.1.

This would mean that both Accountant and Stockist would accept a Shop as an argument to their respective methods. The drawback here, though, is that it's unlikely that the Accountant really wants to stack shelves, and it's probably not a great idea for the Stockist to realize the vast mark-up on prices that the Shop is adding. So, a better place to draw the line is shown in Figure 16.2.

We'll need two interfaces that the Shop needs to implement, but these interfaces clearly define the role that the Shop fulfills for both the Accountant and the Stockist. They are role-based interfaces:

public interface HasBalance {
    Money getSalesTotal(Date startDate, Date endDate);

public interface Stockable {
    void addStock(StockItem item, int quantity);

public interface Shop extends HasBalance, Stockable {

I find UnsupportedOperationExceptions and their ilk deeply displeasing, but there needs to be something that allows functionality to be exposed for the subset of users who might need it without cluttering the rest of the APIs for the majority of users. To this end, WebDriver makes extensive use of role-based interfaces. For example, there is a JavascriptExecutor interface that provides the ability to execute arbitrary chunks of Javascript in the context of the current page. A successful cast of a WebDriver instance to that interface indicates that you can expect the methods on it to work.

[Accountant and Stockist Depend on Shop]

Figure 16.1: Accountant and Stockist Depend on Shop

[Shop Implements HasBalance and Stockable]

Figure 16.2: Shop Implements HasBalance and Stockable

16.4.2. Dealing with the Combinatorial Explosion

One of the first things that is apparent from a moment's thought about the wide range of browsers and languages that WebDriver supports is that unless care is taken it would quickly face an escalating cost of maintenance. With X browsers and Y languages, it would be very easy to fall into the trap of maintaining X×Y implementations.

Reducing the number of languages that WebDriver supports would be one way to reduce this cost, but we don't want to go down this route for two reasons. Firstly, there's a cognitive load to be paid when switching from one language to another, so it's advantageous to users of the framework to be able to write their tests in the same language that they do the majority of their development work in. Secondly, mixing several languages on a single project is something that teams may not be comfortable with, and corporate coding standards and requirements often seem to demand a technology monoculture (although, pleasingly, I think that this second point is becoming less true over time), therefore reducing the number of supported languages isn't an available option.

Reducing the number of supported browsers also isn't an option—there were vociferous arguments when we phased out support for Firefox 2 in WebDriver, despite the fact that when we made this choice it represented less than 1% of the browser market.

The only choice we have left is to try and make all the browsers look identical to the language bindings: they should offer a uniform interface that can be addressed easily in a wide variety of languages. What is more, we want the language bindings themselves to be as easy to write as possible, which suggests that we want to keep them as slim as possible. We push as much logic as we can into the underlying driver in order to support this: every piece of functionality we fail to push into the driver is something that needs to be implemented in every language we support, and this can represent a significant amount of work.

As an example, the IE driver has successfully pushed the responsibility for locating and starting IE into the main driver logic. Although this has resulted in a surprising number of lines of code being in the driver, the language binding for creating a new instance boils down to a single method call into that driver. For comparison, the Firefox driver has failed to make this change. In the Java world alone, this means that we have three major classes that handle configuring and starting Firefox weighing in at around 1300 lines of code. These classes are duplicated in every language binding that wants to support the FirefoxDriver without relying on starting a Java server. That's a lot of additional code to maintain.

16.4.3. Flaws in the WebDriver Design

The downside of the decision to expose capabilities in this way is that until someone knows that a particular interface exists they may not realize that WebDriver supports that type of functionality; there's a loss of explorability in the API. Certainly when WebDriver was new we seemed to spend a lot of time just pointing people towards particular interfaces. We've now put a lot more effort into our documentation and as the API gets more widely used it becomes easier and easier for users to find the information they need.

There is one place where I think our API is particularly poor. We have an interface called RenderedWebElement which has a strange mish-mash of methods to do with querying the rendered state of the element (isDisplayed, getSize and getLocation), performing operations on it (hover and drag and drop methods), and a handy method for getting the value of a particular CSS property. It was created because the HtmlUnit driver didn't expose the required information, but the Firefox and IE drivers did. It originally only had the first set of methods but we added the other methods before I'd done hard thinking about how I wanted the API to evolve. The interface is well known now, and the tough choice is whether we keep this unsightly corner of the API given that it's widely used, or whether we attempt to delete it. My preference is not to leave a "broken window" behind, so fixing this before we release Selenium 2.0 is important. As a result, by the time you read this chapter, RenderedWebElement may well be gone.

From an implementor's point of view, binding tightly to a browser is also a design flaw, albeit an inescapable one. It takes significant effort to support a new browser, and often several attempts need to be made in order to get it right. As a concrete example, the Chrome driver has gone through four complete rewrites, and the IE driver has had three major rewrites too. The advantage of binding tightly to a browser is that it offers more control.

16.5. Layers and Javascript

A browser automation tool is essentially built of three moving parts:

This section focuses on the first part: providing a mechanism to interrogate the DOM. The lingua franca of the browser is Javascript, and this seems like the ideal language to use when interrogating the DOM. Although this choice seems obvious, making it leads to some interesting challenges and competing requirements that need balancing when thinking about Javascript.

Like most large projects, Selenium makes use of a layered set of libraries. The bottom layer is Google's Closure Library, which supplies primitives and a modularization mechanism allowing source files to be kept focused and as small as possible. Above this, there is a utility library providing functions that range from simple tasks such as getting the value of an attribute, through determining whether an element would be visible to an end user, to far more complex actions such as simulating a click using synthesized events. Within the project, these are viewed as offering the smallest units of browser automation, and so are called Browser Automation Atoms or atoms. Finally, there are adapter layers that compose atoms in order to meet the API contracts of both WebDriver and Core.

[Layers of Selenium Javascript Library]

Figure 16.3: Layers of Selenium Javascript Library

The Closure Library was chosen for several reasons. The main one was that the Closure Compiler understands the modularization technique the Library uses. The Closure Compiler is a compiler targeting Javascript as the output language. "Compilation" can be as simple as ordering input files in dependency order, concatenating and pretty printing them, or as complex as doing advanced minification and dead code removal. Another undeniable advantage was that several members of the team doing the work on the Javascript code were very familiar with Closure Library.

This "atomic" library of code is used pervasively throughout the project when there is a requirement to interrogate the DOM. For RC and those drivers largely composed of Javascript, the library is used directly, typically compiled as a monolithic script. For drivers written in Java, individual functions from the WebDriver adapter layer are compiled with full optimization enabled, and the generated Javascript included as resources in the JARs. For drivers written in C variants, such as the iPhone and IE drivers, not only are the individual functions compiled with full optimization, but the generated output is converted to a constant defined in a header which is executed via the driver's normal Javascript execution mechanism on demand. Although this seems like a strange thing to do, it allows the Javascript to be pushed into the underlying driver without needing to expose the raw source in multiple places.

Because the atoms are used pervasively it's possible to ensure consistent behavior between the different browsers, and because the library is written in Javascript and doesn't require elevated privileges to execute the development cycle, is easy and fast. The Closure Library can load dependencies dynamically, so the Selenium developer need only write a test and load it in a browser, modifying code and hitting the refresh button as required. Once the test is passing in one browser, it's easy to load it in another browser and confirm that it passes there. Because the Closure Library does a good job of abstracting away the differences between browsers, this is often enough, though it's reassuring to know that there are continuous builds that will run the test suite in every supported browser.

Originally Core and WebDriver had many areas of congruent code—code that performed the same function in slightly different ways. When we started work on the atoms, this code was combed through to try and find the "best of breed" functionality. After all, both projects had been used extensively and their code was very robust so throwing away everything and starting from scratch would not only have been wasteful but foolish. As each atom was extracted, the sites at which it would be used were identified and switched to using the atom. For example, the Firefox driver's getAttribute method shrunk from approximately 50 lines of code to 6 lines long, including blank lines:

FirefoxDriver.prototype.getElementAttribute =
  function(respond, parameters) {
  var element = Utils.getElementAt(,
  var attributeName =;

  respond.value = webdriver.element.getAttribute(element, attributeName);

That second-to-last line, where respond.value is assigned to, is using the atomic WebDriver library.

The atoms are a practical demonstration of several of the architectural themes of the project. Naturally they enforce the requirement that an implementation of an API be sympathetic to a Javascript implementation. What's even better is that the same library is shared throughout the codebase; where once a bug had to be verified and fixed across multiple implementations, it is now enough to fix the bug in one place, which reduces the cost of change while improving stability and effectiveness. The atoms also make the bus factor of the project more favorable. Since a normal Javascript unit test can be used to check that a fix works the barrier to joining the Open Source project is considerably lower than it was when knowledge of how each driver was implemented was required.

There is another benefit to using the atoms. A layer emulating the existing RC implementation but backed by WebDriver is an important tool for teams looking to migrate in a controlled fashion to the newer WebDriver APIs. As Selenium Core is atomized it becomes possible to compile each function from it individually, making the task of writing this emulating layer both easier to implement and more accurate.

It goes without saying that there are downsides to the approach taken. Most importantly, compiling Javascript to a C const is a very strange thing to do, and it always baffles new contributors to the project who want to work on the C code. It is also a rare developer who has every version of every browser and is dedicated enough to run every test in all of those browsers—it is possible for someone to inadvertently cause a regression in an unexpected place, and it can take some time to identify the problem, particularly if the continuous builds are being flaky.

Because the atoms normalize return values between browsers, there can also be unexpected return values. For example, consider this HTML:

<input name="example" checked>

The value of the checked attribute will depend on the browser being used. The atoms normalize this, and other Boolean attributes defined in the HTML5 spec, to be "true" or "false". When this atom was introduced to the code base, we discovered many places where people were making browser-dependent assumptions about what the return value should be. While the value was now consistent there was an extended period where we explained to the community what had happened and why.

16.6. The Remote Driver, and the Firefox Driver in Particular

The remote WebDriver was originally a glorified RPC mechanism. It has since evolved into one of the key mechanisms we use to reduce the cost of maintaining WebDriver by providing a uniform interface that language bindings can code against. Even though we've pushed as much of the logic as we can out of the language bindings and into the driver, if each driver needed to communicate via a unique protocol we would still have an enormous amount of code to repeat across all the language bindings.

The remote WebDriver protocol is used wherever we need to communicate with a browser instance that's running out of process. Designing this protocol meant taking into consideration a number of concerns. Most of these were technical, but, this being open source, there was also the social aspect to consider.

Any RPC mechanism is split into two pieces: the transport and the encoding. We knew that however we implemented the remote WebDriver protocol, we would need support for both pieces in the languages we wanted to use as clients. The first iteration of the design was developed as part of the Firefox driver.

Mozilla, and therefore Firefox, was always seen as being a multi-platform application by its developers. In order to facilitate the development, Mozilla created a framework inspired by Microsoft's COM that allowed components to be built and bolted together called XPCOM (cross-platform COM). An XPCOM interface is declared using IDL, and there are language bindings for C and Javascript as well as other languages. Because XPCOM is used to construct Firefox, and because XPCOM has Javascript bindings, it's possible to make use of XPCOM objects in Firefox extensions.

Normal Win32 COM allows interfaces to be accessed remotely. There were plans to add the same ability to XPCOM too, and Darin Fisher added an XPCOM ServerSocket implementation to facilitate this. Although the plans for D-XPCOM never came to fruition, like an appendix, the vestigial infrastructure is still there. We took advantage of this to create a very basic server within a custom Firefox extension containing all the logic for controlling Firefox. The protocol used was originally text-based and line-oriented, encoding all strings as UTF-2. Each request or response began with a number, indicating how many newlines to count before concluding that the request or reply had been sent. Crucially, this scheme was easy to implement in Javascript as SeaMonkey (Firefox's Javascript engine at the time) stores Javascript strings internally as 16 bit unsigned integers.

Although futzing with custom encoding protocols over raw sockets is a fun way to pass the time, it has several drawbacks. There were no widely available libraries for the custom protocol, so it needed to be implemented from the ground up for every language that we wanted to support. This requirement to implement more code would make it less likely that generous Open Source contributors would participate in the development of new language bindings. Also, although a line-oriented protocol was fine when we were only sending text-based data around, it brought problems when we wanted to send images (such as screenshots) around.

It became very obvious, very quickly that this original RPC mechanism wasn't practical. Fortunately, there was a well-known transport that has widespread adoption and support in almost every language that would allow us to do what we wanted: HTTP.

Once we had decided to use HTTP for a transport mechanism, the next choice that needed to be made was whether to use a single end-point (à la SOAP) or multiple end points (in the style of REST) The original Selenese protocol used a single end-point and had encoded commands and arguments in the query string. While this approach worked well, it didn't "feel" right: we had visions of being able to connect to a remote WebDriver instance in a browser to view the state of the server. We ended up choosing an approach we call "REST-ish": multiple end-point URLs using the verbs of HTTP to help provide meaning, but breaking a number of the constraints required for a truly RESTful system, notably around the location of state and cacheability, largely because there is only one location for the application state to meaningfully exist.

Although HTTP makes it easy to support multiple ways of encoding data based on content type negotiation, we decided that we needed a canonical form that all implementations of the remote WebDriver protocol could work with. There were a handful of obvious choices: HTML, XML or JSON. We quickly ruled out XML: although it's a perfectly reasonable data format and there are libraries that support it for almost every language, my perception of how well-liked it is in the Open Source community was that people don't enjoy working with it. In addition, it was entirely possible that although the returned data would share a common "shape" it would be easy for additional fields to be added3. Although these extensions could be modeled using XML namespaces this would start to introduce Yet More Complexity into the client code: something I was keen to avoid. XML was discarded as an option. HTML wasn't really a good choice, as we needed to be able to define our own data format, and though an embedded micro-format could have been devised and used that seems like using a hammer to crack an egg.

The final possibility considered was Javascript Object Notation (JSON). Browsers can transform a string into an object using either a straight call to eval or, on more recent browsers, with primitives designed to transform a Javascript object to and from a string securely and without side-effects. From a practical perspective, JSON is a popular data format with libraries for handling it available for almost every language and all the cool kids like it. An easy choice.

The second iteration of the remote WebDriver protocol therefore used HTTP as the transport mechanism and UTF-8 encoded JSON as the default encoding scheme. UTF-8 was picked as the default encoding so that clients could easily be written in languages with limited support for Unicode, as UTF-8 is backwardly compatible with ASCII. Commands sent to the server used the URL to determine which command was being sent, and encoded the parameters for the command in an array.

For example a call to WebDriver.get("") mapped to a POST request to a URL encoding the session ID and ending with "/url", with the array of parameters looking like {[}''{]}. The returned result was a little more structured, and had place-holders for a returned value and an error code. It wasn't long until the third iteration of remote protocol, which replaced the request's array of parameters with a dictionary of named parameters. This had the benefit of making debugging requests significantly easier, and removed the possibility of clients mistakenly mis-ordering parameters, making the system as a whole more robust. Naturally, it was decided to use normal HTTP error codes to indicate certain return values and responses where they were the most appropriate way to do so; for example, if a user attempts to call a URL with nothing mapped to it, or when we want to indicate the "empty response".

The remote WebDriver protocol has two levels of error handling, one for invalid requests, and one for failed commands. An example of an invalid request is for a resource that doesn't exist on the server, or perhaps for a verb that the resource doesn't understand (such as sending a DELETE command to the the resource used for dealing with the URL of the current page) In those cases, a normal HTTP 4xx response is sent. For a failed command, the responses error code is set to 500 ("Internal Server Error") and the returned data contains a more detailed breakdown of what went wrong.

When a response containing data is sent from the server, it takes the form of a JSON object:

Key Description
sessionId An opaque handle used by the server to determine where to route session-specific commands.
status A numeric status code summarizing the result of the command. A non-zero value indicates that the command failed.
value The response JSON value.

An example response would be:

  sessionId: 'BD204170-1A52-49C2-A6F8-872D127E7AE8',
  status: 7,
  value: 'Unable to locate element with id: foo'

As can be seen, we encode status codes in the response, with a non-zero value indicating that something has gone horribly awry. The IE driver was the first to use status codes, and the values used in the wire protocol mirror these. Because all error codes are consistent between drivers, it is possible to share error handling code between all the drivers written in a particular language, making the job of the client-side implementors easier.

The Remote WebDriver Server is simply a Java servlet that acts as a multiplexer, routing any commands it receives to an appropriate WebDriver instance. It's the sort of thing that a second year graduate student could write. The Firefox driver also implements the remote WebDriver protocol, and its architecture is far more interesting, so let's follow a request through from the call in the language bindings to that back-end until it returns to the user.

Assuming that we're using Java, and that "element" is an instance of WebElement, it all starts here:


Internally, the element has an opaque "id" that the server-side uses to identify which element we're talking about. For the sake of this discussion, we'll imagine it has the value "some_opaque_id". This is encoded into a Java Command object with a Map holding the (now named) parameters id for the element ID and name for the name of the attribute being queried.

A quick look up in a table indicates that the correct URL is:


Any section of the URL that begins with a colon is assumed to be a variable that requires substitution. We've been given the id and name parameters already, and the sessionId is another opaque handle that is used for routing when a server can handle more than one session at a time (which the Firefox driver cannot). This URL therefore typically expands to something like:


As an aside, WebDriver's remote wire protocol was originally developed at the same time as URL Templates were proposed as a draft RFC. Both our scheme for specifying URLs and URL Templates allow variables to be expanded (and therefore derived) within a URL. Sadly, although URL Templates were proposed at the same time, we only became aware of them relatively late in the day, and therefore they are not used to describe the wire protocol.

Because the method we're executing is idempotent4, the correct HTTP method to use is a GET. We delegate down to a Java library that can handle HTTP (the Apache HTTP Client) to call the server.

[Overview of the Firefox Driver Architecture]

Figure 16.4: Overview of the Firefox Driver Architecture

The Firefox driver is implemented as a Firefox extension, the basic design of which is shown in Figure 16.4. Somewhat unusually, it has an embedded HTTP server. Although originally we used one that we had built ourselves, writing HTTP servers in XPCOM wasn't one of our core competencies, so when the opportunity arose we replaced it with a basic HTTPD written by Mozilla themselves. Requests are received by the HTTPD and almost straight away passed to a dispatcher object.

The dispatcher takes the request and iterates over a known list of supported URLs, attempting to find one that matches the request. This matching is done with knowledge of the variable interpolation that went on in the client side. Once an exact match is found, including the verb being used, a JSON object, representing the command to execute, is constructed. In our case it looks like:

  'name': 'getElementAttribute',
  'sessionId': { 'value': 'XXX' },
  'parameters': {
    'id': 'some_opaque_key',
    'name': 'rows'

This is then passed as a JSON string to a custom XPCOM component we've written called the CommandProcessor. Here's the code:

var jsonResponseString = JSON.stringify(json);
var callback = function(jsonResponseString) {
  var jsonResponse = JSON.parse(jsonResponseString);

  if (jsonResponse.status != ErrorCode.SUCCESS) {


// Dispatch the command.
    execute(jsonString, callback);

There's quite a lot of code here, but there are two key points. First, we converted the object above to a JSON string. Secondly, we pass a callback to the execute method that causes the HTTP response to be sent.

The execute method of the command processor looks up the "name" to determine which function to call, which it then does. The first parameter given to this implementing function is a "respond" object (so called because it was originally just the function used to send the response back to the user), which encapsulates not only the possible values that might be sent, but also has a method that allows the response to be dispatched back to the user and mechanisms to find out information about the DOM. The second parameter is the value of the parameters object seen above (in this case, id and name). The advantage of this scheme is that each function has a uniform interface that mirrors the structure used on the client side. This means that the mental models used for thinking about the code on each side are similar. Here's the underlying implementation of getAttribute, which you've seen before in Section 16.5:

FirefoxDriver.prototype.getElementAttribute = function(respond, parameters) {
  var element = Utils.getElementAt(,
  var attributeName =;

  respond.value = webdriver.element.getAttribute(element, attributeName);

In order to make element references consistent, the first line simply looks up the element referred to by the opaque ID in a cache. In the Firefox driver, that opaque ID is a UUID and the "cache" is simply a map. The getElementAt method also checks to see if the referred to element is both known and attached to the DOM. If either check fails, the ID is removed from the cache (if necessary) and an exception is thrown and returned to the user.

The second line from the end makes use of the browser automation atoms discussed earlier, this time compiled as a monolithic script and loaded as part of the extension.

In the final line, the send method is called. This does a simple check to ensure that we only send a response once before it calls the callback given to the execute method. The response is sent back to the user in the form of a JSON string, which is decanted into an object that looks like (assuming that getAttribute returned "7", meaning the element wasn't found):

  'value': '7',
  'status': 0,
  'sessionId': 'XXX'

The Java client then checks the value of the status field. If that value is non-zero, it converts the numeric status code into an exception of the correct type and throws that, using the "value" field to help set the message sent to the user. If the status is zero the value of the "value" field is returned to to the user.

Most of this makes a certain amount of sense, but there was one piece that an astute reader will raise questions about: why did the dispatcher convert the object it had into a string before calling the execute method?

The reason for this is that the Firefox Driver also supports running tests written in pure Javascript. Normally, this would be an extremely difficult thing to support: the tests are running in the context of the browser's Javascript security sandbox, and so may not do a range of things that are useful in tests, such as traveling between domains or uploading files. The WebDriver Firefox extension, however, provides an escape hatch from the sandbox. It announces its presence by adding a webdriver property to the document element. The WebDriver Javascript API uses this as an indicator that it can add JSON serialized command objects as the value of a command property on the document element, fire a custom webdriverCommand event and then listen for a webdriverResponse event on the same element to be notified that the response property has been set.

This suggests that browsing the web in a copy of Firefox with the WebDriver extension installed is a seriously bad idea as it makes it trivially easy for someone to remotely control the browser.

Behind the scenes, there is a DOM messenger, waiting for the webdriverCommand this reads the serialized JSON object and calls the execute method on the command processor. This time, the callback is one that simply sets the response attribute on the document element and then fires the expected webdriverResponse event.

16.7. The IE Driver

Internet Explorer is an interesting browser. It's constructed of a number of COM interfaces working in concert. This extends all the way into the Javascript engine, where the familiar Javascript variables actually refer to underlying COM instances. That Javascript window is an IHTMLWindow. document is an instance of the COM interface IHTMLDocument. Microsoft have done an excellent job in maintaining existing behavior as they enhanced their browser. This means that if an application worked with the COM classes exposed by IE6 it will still continue to work with IE9.

The Internet Explorer driver has an architecture that's evolved over time. One of the major forces upon its design has been a requirement to avoid an installer. This is a slightly unusual requirement, so perhaps needs some explanation. The first reason not to require an installer is that it makes it harder for WebDriver to pass the "5 minute test", where a developer downloads a package and tries it out for a brief period of time. More importantly, it is relatively common for users of WebDriver to not be able to install software on their own machines. It also means that no-one needs to remember to log on to the continuous integration servers to run an installer when a project wants to start testing with IE. Finally, running installers just isn't in the culture of some languages. The common Java idiom is to simply drop JAR files on to the CLASSPATH, and, in my experience, those libraries that require installers tend not to be as well-liked or used.

So, no installer. There are consequences to this choice.

The natural language to use for programming on Windows would be something that ran on .Net, probably C#. The IE driver integrates tightly with IE by making use of the IE COM Automation interfaces that ship with every version of Windows. In particular, we use COM interfaces from the native MSHTML and ShDocVw DLLs, which form part of IE. Prior to C# 4, CLR/COM interoperability was achieved via the use of separate Primary Interop Assemblies (PIAs) A PIA is essentially a generated bridge between the managed world of the CLR and that of COM.

Sadly, using C# 4 would mean using a very modern version of the .Net runtime, and many companies avoid living on the leading edge, preferring the stability and known issues of older releases. By using C# 4 we would automatically exclude a reasonable percentage of our user-base. There are also other disadvantages to using a PIA. Consider licensing restrictions. After consultation with Microsoft, it became clear that the Selenium project would not have the rights to distribute the PIAs of either the MSHTML or ShDocVw libraries. Even if those rights had been granted, each installation of Windows and IE has a unique combination of these libraries, which means that we would have needed to ship a vast number of these things. Building the PIAs on the client machine on demand is also a non-starter, as they require developer tools that may not exist on a normal user's machine.

So, although C# would have been an attractive language to do the bulk of the coding in, it wasn't an option. We needed to use something native, at least for the communication with IE. The next natural choice for this is C++, and this is the language that we chose in the end. Using C++ has the advantage that we don't need to use PIAs, but it does mean that we need to redistribute the Visual Studio C++ runtime DLL unless we statically link against them. Since we'd need to run an installer in order to make that DLL available, we statically link our library for communicating with IE.

That's a fairly high cost to pay for a requirement not to use an installer. However, going back to the theme of where complexity should live, it is worth the investment as it makes our users' lives considerably easier. It is a decision we re-evaluate on an ongoing basis, as the benefit to the user is a trade-off with the fact that the pool of people able to contribute to an advanced C++ Open Source project seems significantly smaller than those able to contribute to an equivalent C# project.

The initial design of the IE driver is shown in Figure 16.5.

[Original IE Driver]

Figure 16.5: Original IE Driver

Starting from the bottom of that stack, you can see that we're using IE's COM Automation interfaces. In order to make these easier to deal with on a conceptual level, we wrapped those raw interfaces with a set of C++ classes that closely mirrored the main WebDriver API. In order to get the Java classes communicating with the C++ we made use of JNI, with the implementations of the JNI methods using the C++ abstractions of the COM interfaces.

This approach worked reasonably well while Java was the only client language, but it would have been a source of pain and complexity if each language we supported needed us to alter the underlying library. Thus, although JNI worked, it didn't provide the correct level of abstraction.

What was the correct level of abstraction? Every language that we wanted to support had a mechanism for calling down to straight C code. In C#, this takes the form of PInvoke. In Ruby there is FFI, and Python has ctypes. In the Java world, there is an excellent library called JNA (Java Native Architecture). We needed to expose our API using this lowest common denominator. This was done by taking our object model and flattening it, using a simple two or three letter prefix to indicate the "home interface" of the method: "wd" for "WebDriver" and "wde" for WebDriver Element. Thus WebDriver.get became wdGet, and WebElement.getText became wdeGetText. Each method returns an integer representing a status code, with "out" parameters being used to allow functions to return more meaningful data. Thus we ended up with method signatures such as:

int wdeGetAttribute(WebDriver*, WebElement*, const wchar_t*, StringWrapper**)

To calling code, the WebDriver, WebElement and StringWrapper are opaque types: we expressed the difference in the API to make it clear what value should be used as that parameter, though could just as easily have been "void *". You can also see that we were using wide characters for text, since we wanted to deal with internationalized text properly.

On the Java side, we exposed this library of functions via an interface, which we then adapted to make it look like the normal object-oriented interface presented by WebDriver. For example, the Java definition of the getAttribute method looks like:

public String getAttribute(String name) {
  PointerByReference wrapper = new PointerByReference();
  int result = lib.wdeGetAttribute(
      parent.getDriverPointer(), element, new WString(name), wrapper);

  errors.verifyErrorCode(result, "get attribute of");

  return wrapper.getValue() == null ? null : new StringWrapper(lib, wrapper).toString();

This lead to the design shown in Figure 16.6.

[Modified IE Driver]

Figure 16.6: Modified IE Driver

While all the tests were running on the local machine, this worked out well, but once we started using the IE driver in the remote WebDriver we started running into random lock ups. We traced this problem back to a constraint on the IE COM Automation interfaces. They are designed to be used in a "Single Thread Apartment" model. Essentially, this boils down to a requirement that we call the interface from the same thread every time. While running locally, this happens by default. Java app servers, however, spin up multiple threads to handle the expected load. The end result? We had no way of being sure that the same thread would be used to access the IE driver in all cases.

One solution to this problem would have been to run the IE driver in a single-threaded executor and serialize all access via Futures in the app server, and for a while this was the design we chose. However, it seemed unfair to push this complexity up to the calling code, and it's all too easy to imagine instances where people accidentally make use of the IE driver from multiple threads. We decided to sink the complexity down into the driver itself. We did this by holding the IE instance in a separate thread and using the PostThreadMessage Win32 API to communicate across the thread boundary. Thus, at the time of writing, the design of the IE driver looks like Figure 16.7.

[IE Driver as of Selenium 2.0 alpha 7]

Figure 16.7: IE Driver as of Selenium 2.0 alpha 7

This isn't the sort of design that I would have chosen voluntarily, but it has the advantage of working and surviving the horrors that our users may chose to inflict upon it.

One drawback to this design is that it can be hard to determine whether the IE instance has locked itself solid. This may happen if a modal dialog opens while we're interacting with the DOM, or it may happen if there's a catastrophic failure on the far side of the thread boundary. We therefore have a timeout associated with every thread message we post, and this is set to what we thought was a relatively generous 2 minutes. From user feedback on the mailing lists, this assumption, while generally true, isn't always correct, and later versions of the IE driver may well make the timeout configurable.

Another drawback is that debugging the internals can be deeply problematic, requiring a combination of speed (after all, you've got two minutes to trace the code through as far as possible), the judicious use of break points and an understanding of the expected code path that will be followed across the thread boundary. Needless to say, in an Open Source project with so many other interesting problems to solve, there is little appetite for this sort of grungy work. This significantly reduces the bus factor of the system, and as a project maintainer, this worries me.

To address this, more and more of the IE driver is being moved to sit upon the same Automation Atoms as the Firefox driver and Selenium Core. We do this by compiling each of the atoms we plan to use and preparing it as a C++ header file, exposing each function as a constant. At runtime, we prepare the Javascript to execute from these constants. This approach means that we can develop and test a reasonable percentage of code for the IE driver without needing a C compiler involved, allowing far more people to contribute to finding and resolving bugs. In the end, the goal is to leave only the interaction APIs in native code, and rely on the atoms as much as possible.

Another approach we're exploring is to rewrite the IE driver to make use of a lightweight HTTP server, allowing us to treat it as a remote WebDriver. If this occurs, we can remove a lot of the complexity introduced by the thread boundary, reducing the total amount of code required and making the flow of control significantly easier to follow.

16.8. Selenium RC

It's not always possible to bind tightly to a particular browser. In those cases, WebDriver falls back to the original mechanism used by Selenium. This means using Selenium Core, a pure Javascript framework, which introduces a number of drawbacks as it executes firmly in the context of the Javascript sandbox. From a user of WebDriver's APIs this means that the list of supported browsers falls into tiers, with some being tightly integrated with and offering exceptional control, and others being driven via Javascript and offering the same level of control as the original Selenium RC.

Conceptually, the design used is pretty simple, as you can see in Figure 16.8.

[Outline of Selenium RC's Architecture]

Figure 16.8: Outline of Selenium RC's Architecture

As you can see, there are three moving pieces here: the client code, the intermediate server and the Javascript code of Selenium Core running in the browser. The client side is just an HTTP client that serializes commands to the server-side piece. Unlike the remote WebDriver, there is just a single end-point, and the HTTP verb used is largely irrelevant. This is partly because the Selenium RC protocol is derived from the table-based API offered by Selenium Core, and this means that the entire API can be described using three URL query parameters.

When the client starts a new session, the Selenium server looks up the requested "browser string" to identify a matching browser launcher. The launcher is responsible for configuring and starting an instance of the requested browser. In the case of Firefox, this is as simple as expanding a pre-built profile with a handful of extensions pre-installed (one for handling a "quit" command, and another for modeling "document.readyState" which wasn't present on older Firefox releases that we still support). The key piece of configuration that's done is that the server configures itself as a proxy for the browser, meaning that at least some requests (those for "/selenium-server") are routed through it. Selenium RC can operate in one of three modes: controlling a frame in a single window ("singlewindow" mode), in a separate window controlling the AUT in a second window ("multiwindow" mode) or by injecting itself into the page via a proxy ("proxyinjection" mode). Depending on the mode of operation, all requests may be proxied.

Once the browser is configured, it is started, with an initial URL pointing to a page hosted on the Selenium server—RemoteRunner.html. This page is responsible for bootstrapping the process by loading all the required Javascript files for Selenium Core. Once complete, the "runSeleniumTest" function is called. This uses reflection of the Selenium object to initialize the list of available commands that are available before kicking off the main command processing loop.

The Javascript executing in the browser opens an XMLHttpRequest to a URL on the waiting server (/selenium-server/driver), relying on the fact that the server is proxying all requests to ensure that the request actually goes somewhere valid. Rather than making a request, the first thing that this does is send the response from the previously executed command, or "OK" in the case where the browser is just starting up. The server then keeps the request open until a new command is received from the user's test via the client, which is then sent as the response to the waiting Javascript. This mechanism was originally dubbed "Response/Request", but would now be more likely to be called "Comet with AJAX long polling".

Why does RC work this way? The server needs to be configured as a proxy so that it can intercept any requests that are made to it without causing the calling Javascript to fall foul of the "Single Host Origin" policy, which states that only resources from the same server that the script was served from can be requested via Javascript. This is in place as a security measure, but from the point of view of a browser automation framework developer, it's pretty frustrating and requires a hack such as this.

The reason for making an XmlHttpRequest call to the server is two-fold. Firstly, and most importantly, until WebSockets, a part of HTML5, become available in the majority of browsers there is no way to start up a server process reliably within a browser. That means that the server had to live elsewhere. Secondly, an XMLHttpRequest calls the response callback asynchronously, which means that while we're waiting for the next command the normal execution of the browser is unaffected. The other two ways to wait for the next command would have been to poll the server on a regular basis to see if there was another command to execute, which would have introduced latency to the users tests, or to put the Javascript into a busy loop which would have pushed CPU usage through the roof and would have prevented other Javascript from executing in the browser (since there is only ever one Javascript thread executing in the context of a single window).

Inside Selenium Core there are two major moving pieces. These are the main selenium object, which acts as the host for all available commands and mirrors the API offered to users. The second piece is the browserbot. This is used by the Selenium object to abstract away the differences present in each browser and to present an idealized view of commonly used browser functionality. This means that the functions in selenium are clearer and easier to maintain, whilst the browserbot is tightly focused.

Increasingly, Core is being converted to make use of the Automation Atoms. Both selenium and browserbot will probably need to remain as there is an extensive amount of code that relies on using the APIs it exposes, but it is expected that they will ultimately be shell classes, delegating to the atoms as quickly as possible.

16.9. Looking Back

Building a browser automation framework is a lot like painting a room; at first glance, it looks like something that should be pretty easy to do. All it takes is a few coats of paint, and the job's done. The problem is, the closer you get, the more tasks and details emerge, and the longer the task becomes. With a room, it's things like working around light fittings, radiators and the skirting boards that start to consume time. For a browser automation framework, it's the quirks and differing capabilities of browsers that make the situation more complex. The extreme case of this was expressed by Daniel Wagner-Hall as he sat next to me working on the Chrome driver; he banged his hands on the desk and in frustration muttered, "It's all edge cases!" It would be nice to be able to go back and tell myself that, and that the project is going to take a lot longer than I expected.

I also can't help but wonder where the project would be if we'd identified and acted upon the need for a layer like the automation atoms sooner than we did. It would certainly have made some of the challenges the project faced, internal and external, technically and socially, easier to deal with. Core and RC were implemented in a focused set of languages—essentially just Javascript and Java. Jason Huggins used to refer to this as providing Selenium with a level of "hackability", which made it easy for people to get involved with the project. It's only with the atoms that this level of hackability has become widely available in WebDriver. Balanced against this, the reason why the atoms can be so widely applied is because of the Closure compiler, which we adopted almost as soon as it was released as Open Source.

It's also interesting to reflect on the things that we got right. The decision to write the framework from the viewpoint of the user is something that I still feel is correct. Initially, this paid off as early adopters highlighted areas for improvement, allowing the utility of the tool to increase rapidly. Later, as WebDriver gets asked to do more and harder things and the number of developers using it increases, it means that new APIs are added with care and attention, keeping the focus of the project tight. Given the scope of what we're trying to do, this focus is vital.

Binding tightly to the browser is something that is both right and wrong. It's right, as it has allowed us to emulate the user with extreme fidelity, and to control the browser extremely well. It's wrong because this approach is extremely technically demanding, particularly when finding the necessary hook point into the browser. The constant evolution of the IE driver is a demonstration of this in action, and, although it's not covered here, the same is true of the Chrome driver, which has a long and storied history. At some point, we'll need to find a way to deal with this complexity.

16.10. Looking to the Future

There will always be browsers that WebDriver can't integrate tightly to, so there will always be a need for Selenium Core. Migrating this from its current traditional design to a more modular design based on the same Closure Library that the atoms are using is underway. We also expect to embed the atoms more deeply within the existing WebDriver implementations.

One of the initial goals of WebDriver was to act as a building block for other APIs and tools. Of course, Selenium doesn't live in a vacuum: there are plenty of other Open Source browser automation tools. One of these is Watir (Web Application Testing In Ruby), and work has begun, as a joint effort by the Selenium and Watir developers, to place the Watir API over the WebDriver core. We're keen to work with other projects too, as successfully driving all the browsers out there is hard work. It would be nice to have a solid kernel that others could build on. Our hope is that the kernel is WebDriver.

A glimpse of this future is offered by Opera Software, who have independently implemented the WebDriver API, using the WebDriver test suites to verify the behavior of their code, and who will be releasing their own OperaDriver. Members of the Selenium team are also working with members of the Chromium team to add better hooks and support for WebDriver to that browser, and by extension to Chrome too. We have a friendly relationship with Mozilla, who have contributed code for the FirefoxDriver, and with the developers of the popular HtmlUnit Java browser emulator.

One view of the future sees this trend continue, with automation hooks being exposed in a uniform way across many different browsers. The advantages for people keen to write tests for web applications are clear, and the advantages for browser manufacturers are also obvious. For example, given the relative expense of manual testing, many large projects rely heavily on automated testing. If it's not possible, or even if it's "only" extremely taxing, to test with a particular browser, then tests just aren't run for it, with knock-on effects for how well complex applications work with that browser. Whether those automation hooks are going to be based on WebDriver is an open question, but we can hope!

The next few years are going to be very interesting. As we're an open source project, you'd be welcome to join us for the journey at


  2. This is very similar to FIT, and James Shore, one of that project's coordinators, helps explain some of the drawbacks at
  3. For example, the remote server returns a base64-encoded screen grab with every exception as a debugging aid but the Firefox driver doesn't.
  4. I.e., always returns the same result.